Rail & Public Transport

Rail & Public Transport - More projects

SPADs by freight trains


According to Dutch Rail Inspectorate’s statistics freight trains are 2.6 time more often involved in signals passed at danger (SPADs) per million train kilometres than passenger trains. Intergo investigated these differences using data analytics based on process and task analyses. read more

Train Collision Hermalle-sous-Huy

On 5 June 2016 a collision took place between a passenger train and a freight train at Hermalle-sous-Huy (Belgium). Three people died (including the driver) and nine people were seriously injured. read more

Big-data analyses train driver performance

Increasingly, data is available from various systems. For the Dutch train operator NS, this means that it becomes possible to learn from realized journeys, and apply these lessons for the future. An important principle here is the privacy of the employees involved. read more

ERTMS: a pilot with Dual Signalling

In 2014 the Ministry of Transport formulated a strategy for implementation of ERTMS in Holland. Prior to decision-making a pilot with ERTMS in commercial train service was performed on the track between the cities of Amsterdam and Utrecht. read more

Foot control in new HTM tram

The new tram (Avenio) of HTM is built by Siemens. This tram is equipped with a foot control with three pedals on a height adjustable footrest. read more

Operational processes and ERTMS level 1

On the Havenspoorlijn, the rail track between the Maasvlakte, an industrial zone near Rotterdam, and Barendrecht, the European Train Control system ERTMS level 1 is applied. Information about for example the permitted train speed is transmitted to the train driver not only by means of signs and... read more

Safety Communication

Important announcements that we make verbally are not always received correctly. Remember the game in which a sentence has to be passed on in a whisper via a whole row of people? At the end of the row it is often an entirely different announcement than at the beginning! read more

Step height at driver’s cabin of train

The height to the bottom step of the train’s driver’s cabin has been relatively high for many years. The Labour Inspectorate does not accept this any more in an increasing amount of instances, as they employ basic standard like NEN 5518 (for trucks a maximum of 400 mm). read more

Energetic load DB Cargo

DB Cargo Netherlands (DB Schenker) has asked for an up-to-date and improved understanding of the energetic load of employees working outside. The employees perform a wide variety of activities that can have a high energetic load. DB Schenker wants to plan shifts in a sound manner that fits in... read more

Assistance for disabled people and use of the boarding ramp

A foldable boarding ramp is used to help wheelchair and scoot users board and exit the train, as part of the assistance for disabled people. Employees have complaints about the use of the boarding ramp. These complaints concern safety, physical load and the workspace on small platforms. read more

Route knowledge for train drivers

To be allowed to drive a train from A to B, drivers must have – apart from a general aptitude and knowledge / experience with certain rolling stock - also Route knowledge. read more

Train Collision Amsterdam Westerpark

Intergo was commissioned by the Dutch Safety Board (OVV) to perform a study into the human factors that played a role in the train collision in Amsterdam Westerpark on 21 April 2012. read more


The current Dutch automatic train protection system ATB-EG allows trains to pass signals at danger at 40 kmh. To further increase safety levels Orbit is designed to complement ATB-EG and be an alternative to ATB-Vv (Improved version). read more

STM-STM Transitions

Specific balises near the frontier of The Netherlands and Germany resp. Belgium enable ETCS equipped trains to cross the boarder, and automatically changeover from one national train protection system to another using specific transmission modules (STM). ProRail commissioned Intergo to assess... read more

Ergonomic assessment ATB–Improved version

ATB-Improved version (ATB-Vv) is a supplemental safety layer for the existing ATB system (Dutch automatic train protection) aiming to prevent signals passed at danger (SPADs). read more

Routing, Signing en Branding (RSB) in Public Transport

Prorail, GVB and NS work together to realize the Routing, Signing and Branding (RSB) for the use of the OV-chipcard on stations. Intergo is asked to develop a concept that is appropriate for the use of OV-chipcard on stations/stops where passengers must make a choice between several railway... read more

Passengers waiting on the platform

Passengers must be able to safely wait on a train platform. When trains pass the platform with high speed, a safe place on the platform is even more essential. read more

Moving stairs and bicycles, a difficult combination

Moving stairs seem to be a good solution to bridge heights on locations with little available ground space. read more

Guidelines for travel and commercial information in stations

Between different concerning parties there was no consensus about the balance between travel information and commercial signing. Setting up requirements to resolve this, could easily end up in conflicting interests. read more

Transparency of objects on station platforms

In relation to the development of new station furniture Intergo developed verifiable requirements for the transparency of objects on station platforms. Transparency has been translated into free/not-blocked lines of sight. read more

Experience value of stations: Station XX

Travelling by public transport is a total experience with many different factors. The train must run on time, the station must provide sufficient safety and shelter, and also a good atmosphere is important for the total experience. read more

Speech intelligibility of onboard train PA systems

Informing train passengers is a key issue for NS. One information medium is the onboard PA system. NS and NedTrain started an investigation into the technical state of these systems, the requirement specifications, and the relation between these parameters and passenger's judgement. read more

Rules of etiquette in trains

The Dutch Railways have recently decided to draw up rules of etiquette, which will be applied in trains. The rules are displayed in the form of a large sticker. The text, in Dutch and English, is supported by a set of pictograms. read more

Signage in Station buildings

The Dutch Railways has developed new corporate design for that is also used for signing and travel information presentation in stations buildings. As a test, this signage was placed in 15 stations. The Dutch Railways felt the need to audit the entire system of signage and it’s underlying... read more

Improved signs along the track

ProRail has the intention to improve the visibility of signs along the track. In fact this means the use of a better retroreflective sheet material (class II instead of class I conform NEN-EN 12899-1). read more

Train diagnostic system for train drivers

In the Netherlands Railways’ newest double-deck train sets a diagnostic system is installed to detect malfunctions and breakdowns of train equipment. By means of a touchscreen in each cabin the train driver can be informed about the status of the equipment. Intergo specified and designed the... read more

Punctuality in service of rolling stock (PUMA)

Train delays have a lot of causes (faulty infrastructure, external causes, etc.). In registrations a large number of train delays is attributed to the technical factor rolling stock. However technical failures are frequently related to human performance.Intergo is asked to examine the so-called... read more

Driver-machine interface (DMI) for integrated journey information

The Netherlands Railways ask Intergo to come up with a design proposal for an integrated interface for the train driver. read more

Siemens Combino tram

Siemens is the supplier of the Combino tram to the GVB (the Amsterdam municipal transport authority). read more

Standing in trains

NS needs more insight information concerning the quality of standing in trains. Intergo has investigated standing in trains. read more

Boarding and alighting process on trains

The Netherlands Railways wishes to reduce the stopping times of its double-deck stock from 2 a 3 minutes to 1 a 2 minutes. By way of experiment, some inner doors were removed to investigate the effect on the boarding and alighting speed and on passenger movement patterns. read more

New Amsterdam metro cabin

Intergo was chosen by Alstom Transport to deliver an independent report about the ergonomic quality of the new Amsterdam metro cabin. read more

Configuration new workshop

Strukton Railinfra wants to build a new workshop for the maintenance of large track-related machines (for example track renewal). Intergo has been asked to assist in the choice of the configuration for the new workshop, so that an ergonomic optimal workshop can be realised. read more

The assessment of mental workload of train dispatchers

Mental workload is a concept that can be interpreted in many different ways. Therefore it is possible that the discussion about mental workload leads to confusion between different parties. read more

Mental workload of train dispatchers: Task Weighing

We presented a paper on this topic during the Third International Conference on Rail Human Factors.
read more

Train Traffic Control France

RFF (the French rail infrastructure manager) has developed outline plans for future traffic control in France. Centralization and a higher degree of automation are the central issues in the future. The impact of the future, including a more detailed basis for the business case, must be worked out. read more

Risk model for violations on level crossings

Safety on level crossings is an important subject for ProRail, the Dutch infrastructure manager. As a result, the safety on level crossings has improved significantly over the last couple of years. Unfortunately, lately the number of accidents on level crossings increased. read more


Analysis of SPADs (signals passed at danger; passing a red light) shows that distraction of the driver plays an important part in 30% of the incidents. In 20% of the incidents the driver had formed expectations – in this study a form of distraction – based on the preceding signal. read more

Data Entry-procedure for ERTMS/ETCS-DMI

Prior to driving on a track equipped with ERTMS/ETCS the driver has to enter data about train composition into the system. Intergo proposed an optimal data entry procedure from the driver's perspective, information presentation, and operation. read more

Auditory signals for ERTMS/ETCS-DMI

The man-machine interface (MMI) or driver-machine-information (DMI) for ERTMS/ETCS/EIRENE has to present the driver with auditory information, in addition to visual. read more

Fast Passing

Intercity and local trains in the same direction normally use the same track. When the local train halts at a station the intercity train, driving more rapidly, can pass. If they drive according to the timetable, they do not interfere with each other. read more

Train driver's job design

Technical or ICT developments increasingly enter the train cab and influence the train driver's job. Netherlands Railways (NS) are in need of a framework to evaluate these developments. read more

Interface for ERTMS/ETCS

Trains across Europe pass borders more frequently. But each country has a different system to protect and control the train. To prevent the necessity to have on board a train control system for each country the train crosses a European Train Control System (ERTMS/ETCS) is developed. Furthermore... read more

Safety signs at escape doors in train tunnels

In new train tunnels ProRail installs an extra safety sign which indicates at calamities that behind a emergency door to a next tube still moving trains can be present. It is thereby important that this safety sign is the same in all rail tunnels. read more

ERTMS display in locomotives on the Betuweroute

The actual implementation of ERTMS/ETCS, the European Train Control System, in locomotives on the Betuweroute leads to several practical questions. One of these questions was the presence of another speedometer in the cabin functioning next to the speedometer on the DMI ERTMS. read more

Physical workload of rail workers

Working along the rail track is a physically demanding job. Under unfavourable conditions heavy and/or big materials are horizontally and vertically moved. This results in many physical complaints and sick leave. After many studies this customer thought it was time to actually DO something. read more

Safe speed of a passing train during track maintenance

ProRail, the Dutch manager of the rail infra structure, wants to raise safety level during track maintenance. Maximum security however means that no train can pass on the alongside tracks during the activities.This has undesirable social consequences. read more

Workload of a high speed train driver

Driving on the High Speed Line in the Netherlands the train driver passes some voltage transitions, where an overhead voltage change from 1500 V to 25 kV is demanded. In these areas the train driver has to perform some specific actions. read more

Video inspection of tracks: quality, work strain and workplace

Video inspection of the track is considered to be an attractive alternative for the walking inspection along the track (more safely, less disturbance of trains). Inspection of the track is necessary to detect defects and to identify large wear of the track. read more

Evaluation of railway trackyard Rotterdam

The layout of the tracks on the west side trackyard in Rotterdam Central Station has been changed substantially due to the connection of the High Speed Line South to Amsterdam/Schiphol Airport. One change is a new fly-over. read more

LED railway light signals

LED’s are electronic light sources with several technical advantages. Railway light signals equipped with LED’s will replace the conventional candescent signals with light bulbs in the near future. read more